Briefly in the Los Angeles police established a "'bum blockade'" at the California border to keep out undesirables. The new residents who had skills might find a job with reasonable pay.
View on timesmachine. For a claim about the size of Delaware he thus substituted one which was nearly the size of New Jersey. For good measure, we can add Russell Pearce, former president of the Arizona Senate until his recent recall and author of Senate Bill , the anti-immigrant measure that sparked national outrage by making Hispanics targets for racial profiling. Although no body was found at the location in the morning, he followed the sign. During the years following the creation of the Arizona Territory in and the gold discoveries, the clashes between Indians and whites increased. Indeed there was a reaction against Commodore Perry Owens.
Others lived with friends or after a year's waiting period went on relief. The classic story of "Okie" migration involves those who settled in the San Joaquin Valley. From to more than seventy thousand southwesterners migrated to this fertile inland region, hoping for a small plot of their own. It would not happen.
Instead, they began harvesting cotton and fruit, pushing out Hispanic and Filipino laborers. The influx of migrants depressed wages, satisfying farm owners, but the "Okies," unlike the Hispanics, tended to stick around after the harvests.
Because they arrived impoverished and because wages were low, many lived in filth and squalor in tents and shantytowns along the irrigation ditches. Consequently, they were despised as "Okies," a term of disdain, even hate, pinned on economically degraded farm laborers no matter their state of origin. The California Citizens Association formed to find a solution to the "Okie" influx and succeeded in extending the waiting period for California relief to three years.
The federal Farm Security Administration FSA provided several clean camps designed to be governed by the residents and to foster a sense of self-respect. But these were only models for state and private organizations, which were not prone to build any kind of residences. The powerful Associated Farmers the growers feared the "Okies" might unionize and demand better wages.
Many were demoralized, and most identified more with farm owners than laborers. Southwestern migrants in Arizona also found life difficult. As many as thirty-seven thousand migrants, lured by the growers' intense recruitment effort, entered the state from to to harvest a bumper cotton crop. The number of workers may have been twice as many as needed.
Some suspected an effort to depress wages and hinder unionization. As the harvest came to an end, and floods in the San Joaquin Valley forestalled the migrants' movement to California, tensions mounted.
Arizona's three-year residency requirement ruled out public assistance. When the FSA provided relief, the tension dissipated and many migrants moved on.
Generally, although Arizonans did not welcome "Okies," their antipathy was not as strong as that of Californians. Sympathetic artists gained fame as they raised the national consciousness about their distressed subjects. John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath depicted a downtrodden Joad family trekking from Oklahoma to California, suffering scorn and economic oppression as they sought honest employment. This gritty portrayal offended some Oklahomans, but many others avidly read the book.
Dorothea Lange's photographs, produced for the Farm Security Administration, stirred concern for the displaced, as did the folk songs of Woody Guthrie. The supposedly helpless "Okies" of these works might have been more symbols of the artists' ideologies than the real migrants, who actually left a noticeable imprint on the central valleys of California.
Politically, the "Okies" imparted "plain-folk Americanism," which combines concern for the little man with a spirit of individualism and a sense of patriotism. Culturally, they contributed an evangelical and emotional version of Protestantism, especially captured in Southern Baptist or Pentecostal strains of religion. In addition, they infused the region with country music.
Even as the migrants dispersed to defense industry jobs during World War II, or climbed up the economic ladder to own a plot of land in the valley, or went back home to Oklahoma, they had made their mark on the society that had treated them with contempt.
Those convicted of minor offenses often are given the opportunity to accept placement in community service programs at corps community centers and institutions as an alternative to incarceration, or in the last months of their sentences. In addition, Salvation Army officers and volunteers lead worship services in jails and prisons.
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